The Psychological process of motivation can be well explained with the help of Psycho dynamics. The literal meaning of Motivation is the desire to do things. It is an internal state and is goal oriented. It is an inner force that drives you to do something. Some individuals are highly motivated and they have energy, direction or the drive. Motivation, the area of Psychology is discussed and researched in a big way these days and the reason is every one wants to taste the nectar of success.
An example is employee motivation. In this case it is the responsibility of the Boss or the Owner to motivate the employees to increase the performance and productivity. Here the motivation can be a hike in the salary or a performance bonus or a promotion. Another excellent example is class room motivation. The motivation given to students by the teacher, pave way to an improved or better learning process in them.
The Psychological process of motivation falls under five main theories. They are
1) Instinct Theory - This Instinct happens as a result of biological or genetic make-up. A spider has the ability to spin its web and this is an Instinct motivation. Humans also have these abilities. Babies are born with this unique ability like crying, blinking and coughing.
2) Drive reduction Theory - This is the motivation to act to reduce the tension like having food in order to reduce the hunger.
3) Arousal Theory - This is associated with state of emotion, Intellectual or any physical action.
4) Psychoanalytic Theory - According to Freud, there are only two drives - Drive to life and death. One does everything for the survival and to prevent from the destruction.
5) Humanistic Theory - This is a well known theory of Motivation. According to Maslow, there are 5 hierarchies of needs. They are psychological needs, safety needs, belonging and love needs, esteem needs and needs for self actualization.
There is lot of research and work still need to be done in this area before relying one particular theory or postulate.